Daisy Buchanan and The Great Gatsby

Mia Farrow as Daisy Buchanan

Mia Farrow as Daisy Buchanan

Daisy Fay Buchanan is a fictional character in F. Scott Fitzgerald's magnum opus The Great Gatsby (1925). In the novel, Daisy is depicted as a married woman with a daughter who is reunited with her former lover Jay Gatsby, arousing the jealousy of her husband, Tom. She is widely believed to have been based on Ginevra King.[1] She has appeared in various media related to the novel including feature films and plays.

Appearances

The Great Gatsby

Daisy Fay was born into a wealthy Louisville family. By 1917, Daisy had several suitors of her same class, but fell in love with Jay Gatsby, a poor soldier. Before Gatsby left for war, Daisy promised to wait for him. After Gatsby started attending Trinity College, Oxford, Daisy sent him a letter revealing that she had married Tom Buchanan. During the marriage, Daisy gave birth to a daughter, Pammy, who Daisy had hoped would be "a beautiful little fool." Daisy and her family settled in East Egg, a wealthy enclave in Long Island.

After her cousin Nick Carraway arrives in West Egg, the neighboring island, he meets Gatsby, who by now has become extremely wealthy. Gatsby throws several large, extravagant parties in hopes that Daisy will attend.[2] Nick successfully sets up a meeting between the two for the first time in five years, leading to an affair.[3]

At the Buchanan home, Daisy, Tom, Gatsby, Nick and his girlfriend Jordan Baker decide to visit New York City, Tom taking Gatsby's yellow Rolls Royce with Jordan and Nick while Daisy and Gatsby drive alone. Once the group reach the city, they throw a party that turns into a confrontation between Daisy, Tom and Gatsby. Though Gatsby insisted that Daisy never loved Tom, Daisy admits that she loves both Tom and Gatsby. The party ends with Daisy driving Gatsby out of New York City in Tom's car, while Tom leaves with Nick and Jordan. Tom's mistress Myrtle Wilson, who earlier had a falling out with Tom, runs in front of Tom's car in hopes of reconciling with Tom. Daisy does not see her until it is too late, and runs her over. Daisy, panicked, drives away from the scene of the accident. In her home in East Egg, Gatsby assures her that he will take the blame. Tom tells George, Myrtle's husband, that it was Gatsby's car that killed Myrtle. George goes to Gatsby's home in West Egg and shoots Gatsby dead before turning the gun on himself. After Gatsby's murder, Daisy, Tom and their daughter leave East Egg, having no forwarding address.

Film and other adaptations

The first adaptation of The Great Gatsby was a silent film produced in 1926 and featured Lois Wilson as Daisy. The film is now considered lost.

In 1949, another film was made, starring Alan Ladd as Gatsby and Betty Field as Daisy.

Phyllis Kirk portrayed Daisy in a 1955 episode of the television series Robert Montgomery Presents adapting The Great Gatsby.

Jeanne Crain played Daisy in a 1958 episode of the television series Playhouse 90.

In the 1974 film adaptation, Daisy is portrayed by Mia Farrow. A photo of Farrow portraying Daisy graced the cover of the first issue of People magazine in promotion of the then-upcoming film. In the photo, Farrow holds a string of pearls in her hand while the pearls are also in her mouth.[4] It was later emulated in 2014 by Taylor Swift.[5] Farrow's performance as Daisy was met with mixed reception, Bruce Handy of Vanity Fair praising Farrow as being "full of vain flutter and the seductive instant intimacy of the careless rich"[6] while Leigh Paatsch of News.com.au thought Farrow missed Daisy "by a country mile."[7] While Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote favorably of Farrow as Daisy, he added that Daisy "may be an impossible role, one that is much more easily accepted on the page than on the screen."[8]

Mira Sorvino played Daisy in the 2000 film adaptation.

In the 2013 film adaptation, Daisy is portrayed by Carey Mulligan.[9] Mulligan had two 90-minute auditions, which she found to be fun and served as her initial encounters with Leonardo DiCaprio, who portrayed Gatsby, and who read with her both days. Mulligan left the audition, unsure she had secured the role, but was satisfied to have played off DiCaprio.[10] Mulligan read the novel in preparation for auditioning for the role, finding the book to be accessible due to its length. Mulligan was familiar with the dislike some readers of The Great Gatsby had for the character, but felt she could not "think that about her, because I can't play her thinking she's awful." Mulligan strayed from watching Farrow's prior portrayal of Daisy, believing she might steal from Farrow's performance subconsciously for her own.[11] Director Baz Luhrmann confirmed Mulligan had been cast as Daisy in November 2010, one month after she acquired the role.[12] After the confirmation, Time assessed Mulligan as being attractive but in a childlike way, a contrast to Daisy's womanly beauty in the novel.[13] Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter in his review of the film wrote that viewers had their own ideals about Daisy's character and would debate whether Mulligan "has the beauty, the bearing, the dream qualities desired for the part, but she lucidly portrays the desperate tear Daisy feels between her unquestionable love for Gatsby and fear of her husband."[14]

Tricia Paoluccio portrayed Daisy in the American Masters episode "Novel Reflections: The American Dream". Starting in 2006, in the Simon Levy version of the play, Daisy was portrayed by Heidi Armbruster, who according to Quinton Skinner, "is full of loony momentary enthusiasms and a dangerous sensuality, though by the second act, Armbruster’s perf veers toward hollow mannerisms."[15] Daisy was portrayed by Monte McGrath in the 2012 version of the play, and her performance was met with acclaim.[16] Daisy is portrayed by Madeleine Herd in an adaptation by Independent Theater productions.[17]

Creation and conception

According to his own letters and diary entries, Fitzgerald's character of Daisy was based on Chicago socialite and debutante, Ginevra King.[18][19][1] He had met on a visit back home in St. Paul, Minnesota while enrolled as a student at Princeton University.[20] Immediately infatuated with her, according to his biographer Andrew Mizner, Fitzgerald "remained devoted to Ginevra as long as she would allow him to", wrote to her "daily the incoherent, expressive letters all young lovers write",[21] and she would become his inspiration for Daisy, as well as several other characters in his novels and short stories.[21][22]

The curator of Fitzgerald manuscripts and letters at Princeton, Don Skemer, has written that Ginerva "remained for Fitzgerald an archetype for the alluring, independent and upper class woman, ultimately unattainable by someone of a modest social background like himself", and that she "was a model for Daisy", as well as being "recognizable in many other [Fitzgerald] characters."[23]

There is also evidence of Daisy being partially based on Fitzgerald's wife Zelda.[24] Theresa Anne Fowler has written of the similarities that both Daisy and Zelda shared: "the Southern upbringing, the prominent family. And it is no secret that Scott borrowed liberally from Zelda’s early diaries and their own life for his stories."[24] And, when their daughter Scottie was born, Zelda, upon emerging from the anesthesia, was reported to have expressed her hope that their child would be a "beautiful little fool" -- one of Daisy's lines, among many others, that have been attributed to Zelda.[24]

Characterization

When first introduced, Daisy is shown to speak in a manner that is childlike and without any knowledge of what is correct. She fakes ignorance when speaking in Tom's presence but then reveals her actual feelings to Nick, including the fact that she had hoped her daughter would be unintelligent. From this, it is implied that her mannerisms are not some mere attempt at fooling those around her but actually contribute to an ongoing effort to serve as a role model toward her daughter and be directly responsible for her not learning much and becoming the "beautiful little fool" that she had aspired to have for a child. Daisy's motivations in wanting this are revealed by her to be that of hoping that her daughter is spared the unpleasant events that can occur in one's life and rooted in her view that she will not be affected by the emotional pain of her life as in being moronic, she cannot understand the events transpiring around her.

Though she is faithful to her husband in the years of their marriage leading up to Gatsby's return, she jumps nearly instantly at the chance of being able to have an affair with Gatsby. While it appears at first that this is a mere relationship of lust between two former lovers that are seeking to reignite an old flame, it is later revealed by Daisy's words to Tom after he learns of the relationship that she went along with it due to her feeling of neglect by her husband. Not only did her neglect drive her to the point of breaking a vow, but so did her ambitions to have an actual fulfilling relationship for the first time since shortly after she married, as Daisy reveals the lack of intimacy between her and Tom, further evidenced by his continued decline to show her any type of consideration in their shared appearances. Daisy's reluctance to accept Tom's claims of remorse demonstrate that her trust is not earned easily and the fact that she continues seeing Gatsby following this proves that she was not as concerned with the consequences of her cheating than that of her happiness.

Looking at Daisy’s character, one can see she did care for Gatsby, though maybe not as much as she ended up caring for Tom. Daisy was important to Gatsby because Daisy made Gatsby feel loved. Though no matter what Gatsby did to win Daisy’s affection, she married Tom and remained married to him despite Gatsby’s pursuit of her. “[Gatsby’s] efforts to attain Daisy…are no more successful, as she abandons him and he realizes too late that he has set his sights on the wrong goal.” [25] Daisy is “a woman who gives birth to a child, cheats on her husband, kills another person, and allows Gatsby to take the blame for her mistake.”[26] This says much about Daisy’s character, because Daisy seems to think that she can do what she wants without needing to worry about the consequences of her actions, nor how they affect other people. Beginning when Gatsby left the first time for the army, for she could never seem to find someone to fill the hole that which Gatsby had left: “Wild rumors were circulating about her…After that she didn’t play around with the soldiers any more but only with a few flat-footed, short sighted young men in town who couldn’t get into the army at all.” [27] Then there came the time for Daisy to marry Tom, but she wanted to “change’ her mind!” for she knew that she loved Gatsby still, but decided not to do anything about her conflicted heart.[28]

Daisy as a reference point

Daisy has become associated with wealth,[29] victims of marital affairs,[30] and glamor.[31][32] Since the Baz Luhrmann live action film was released, featuring Daisy with a bob cut, certain versions of the hairstyle are attributed to her.[33][34] Actress Carey Mulligan, who portrayed Daisy in the 2013 film adaptation, said Daisy was similar to members of the Kardashian family, later stating, "what I was trying to imply was that there’s an essence of part of the amazing business they run as the Kardashians is looking beautiful a lot and looking very present, presentational and perfect.”[35] Since the comparisons, members of the Kardashian family have been compared to Daisy.[36] Shaun Fitzpatrick of Bustle compared Daisy with the lead character in the novel Irresistible: The Jazz Age Life of Henrietta Bingham, even using images of Daisy when talking about actions of the character since as Fitzpatrick wrote, she was similar to "a character in an F. Scott Fitzgerald novel".[37] Inga Ting of The Sydney Morning Herald used an image of Mulligan as Daisy in an article titled, "Men want beauty, women want money: what we want from the opposite sex".[38] The character's physical description has become synonymous with 1920s culture.[39]

Reception

Emma Gray of The Huffington Post wrote of Daisy, "As F. Scott Fitzgerald's twisted 1920s version of a manic pixie dream girl, The Great Gatsby antiheroine has become one of the most discussed and polarizing female characters in American literature."[40] An afterward in the 1992 edition of the novel by publisher Charles Scribner III claimed that Fitzgerald blamed the initial commercial failure of The Great Gatsby on it containing "no important woman character and women control the fiction market at present.” The line was inferred that Fitzgerald did not believe it contained any sympathetic female characters.[41] Daisy has become a role model for young women who aspire to attain wealth, be considered physically attractive and fashionable and portray appealing personal qualities.[42] This desire has been critiqued due to the perceived outdatedness of the character,[43] her shallowness,[44] and for sending negative connotations.[45]

Daisy has been vilified for the consequences of her actions, such as directly and indirectly causing the deaths of several characters, and has even been considered the true antagonist of the novel. She ranked No. 1 on 10 On Screen Villains that Will Make Your Blood Boil, Part 2 on Moviepilot, a list consisting entirely of female film characters.[46] Bloom wrote that, although Daisy was not technically the villain of the story, "she still sucks, and if it weren’t for her a couple key players in the book would be alive at the end of it." Bloom then dedicated the subsequent list of her top ten detestable literary characters to Daisy.[47] Despite the criticism, some commentators have sympathized with the character. Katie Baker of The Daily Beast concluded that though Daisy lives and Gatsby dies, "in the end both Gatsby and Daisy have lost their youthful dreams, that sense of eternal possibility that made the summertimes sweet. And love her or hate her, there’s something to pity in that irrevocable fact."[41] Dave McGinn listed the character as one who needed their side of the story in their novel told, questioning if she really had a "voice full of money" as Gatsby claimed and wondered what her thoughts were on the love triangle between her, Gatsby and her husband.[48]

References

  1. ^ a b Dinitia Smith (September 8, 2003). "Love Notes Drenched In Moonlight; Hints of Future Novels In Letters To Fitzgerald". New York Times. 
  2. ^ "The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald – review". The Guardian. December 23, 2015. 
  3. ^ Maglio, Tony (November 2, 2013). "Leonardo DiCaprio to Tobey Maguire in 'Gatsby' Deleted Scene: Daisy Buchanan's a Gold Digger (Video)". TheWrap. 
  4. ^ Willis, Jackie (October 8, 2014). "Taylor Swift Recreates Mia Farrow's 1974 'People' Cover". Entertainment Tonight. 
  5. ^ Schlosser, Kurt (October 8, 2014). "Taylor Swift channels Mia Farrow for People's 40th anniversary cover". 
  6. ^ Handy, Bruce (April 26, 2013). "As Baz Luhrmann's Great Gatsby Arrives, a Look Back At Its Failed 1974 Predecessor". Vanity Fair. 
  7. ^ Paatsch, Leigh (May 13, 2013). "Gatsby vs Gatsby: Di Caprio vs Redford. Which version is the greatest?". News.com.au. 
  8. ^ Canby, Vincent (March 28, 1974). "The Great Gatsby (1974) - A Lavish 'Gatsby' Loses Book's Spirit:The Cast". The New York Times. 
  9. ^ Barsamian, Edward (April 15, 2015). "Is Carey Mulligan Channeling Daisy Buchanan?". Vogue. 
  10. ^ Peikert, Mark (May 9, 2013). "Carey Mulligan Is More Than a Movie Star in 'The Great Gatsby'". Backstage. 
  11. ^ Vancheri, Barbara (May 10, 2013). "Carey Mulligan had to find good side of Daisy". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  12. ^ Fleming Jr., Mike. "Baz Luhrmann Tells Deadline: Carey Mulligan Is My Daisy Buchanan". 
  13. ^ "Carey Mulligan as Gatsby's Daisy Buchanan? Let's Think This One Over". Time. November 17, 2010. 
  14. ^ Schillaci, Sophie (May 9, 2013). "'Gatsby': Carey Mulligan Addresses Daisy's 'Flawed' Character, 'Hates' Watching Her Own Work (Video)". Hollywood Reporter. 
  15. ^ "The Great Gatsby". Variety. July 26, 2006. 
  16. ^ Irwin, Dave (May 5, 2012). "'Gatsby' is great despite strange denouement". tucsonsentinel.com. 
  17. ^ Lenny, Barry (September 6, 2015). "BWW Review: THE GREAT GATSBY Recreates The Jazz Age In High Society Circles". BroadwayWorld. 
  18. ^ Bruccoli, Matthew Joseph (2002), Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald (2nd rev. ed.), Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, p. 123–124, ISBN 1-57003-455-9 
  19. ^ Lawton, Mark (January 19, 2016). "Westleigh Farm subdivision moves toward final approval". Chicago Tribune. 
  20. ^ Noden, Merrell. "Fitzgerald's first love". Princeton Alumni Weekly. November 5, 2003.
  21. ^ a b Mizener, Arthur (1972), Scott Fitzgerald and His World, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons 
  22. ^ Stepanov, Renata. "Family of Fitzgerald's lover donates correspondence" Archived June 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. The Daily Princetonian. September 15, 2003.
  23. ^ Stevens, Ruth (September 7, 2003). "Before Zelda, there was Ginevra". Princeton. 
  24. ^ a b c Fowler, Theresa Anne (March 31, 2013). "Rehabilitating Zelda Fitzgerald, the original It Girl". Telegraph. 
  25. ^ Comeau, Patrice, "Boats Against the Current: The American Dream as Death Denial in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman" (2012). Honors Theses. Paper 39. Page 18. Web. 10 April 2016. <http://scholars.unh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=honors>
  26. ^ Comeau, Patrice, "Boats Against the Current: The American Dream as Death Denial in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman" (2012). Honors Theses. Paper 39. Page 19. Web. 10 April 2016. <http://scholars.unh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=honors>
  27. ^ Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1995. Print. Page 81.
  28. ^ Fitzgerald, F. Scott, The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1995. Print. Page 82.
  29. ^ "What Do Rich People Want?". Huffington Post. April 12, 2016. 
  30. ^ "Ferne McCann keeps it simple in a plunging white top and chic black culottes as she leaves the This Morning studios". dailymail.co.uk. March 31, 2016. 
  31. ^ "The Rich in Fiction". The New Yorker. September 12, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Ben Carson cat collars and other must-have candidate holiday gifts for your family". December 18, 2015. 
  33. ^ Shapland, Kate (March 14, 2013). "Sporting a bob The Great Gatsby way". fashion.telegraph.co.uk. 
  34. ^ "Kris Jenner celebrates 60th birthday with glitzy Great Gatsby-themed soiree". New York Daily News. November 7, 2015. 
  35. ^ Miller, Julie (May 1, 2013). "Frighteningly, Carey Mulligan Used the Kardashians as Inspiration for Playing Daisy Buchanan in The Great Gatsby". Vanity Fair. 
  36. ^ Warner, Rosie (November 7, 2015). "Steal Kourtney Kardashian's Gatsby Look With A Few Simple Menswear Pieces — PHOTOS". BUSTLE. 
  37. ^ "6 Ways To Be A Jazz-Age Goddess, Straight From Real-Life 1920s Heroine Henrietta Bingham". Bustle. June 15, 2015. 
  38. ^ Ting, Inga (October 1, 2015). "Men want beauty, women want money: what we want from the opposite sex". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  39. ^ Mcentee, Katherine (January 17, 2016). "The Most Unforgettable Outfit From Critics Choice Awards History Goes To A 2013 Throwback — PHOTOS". Bustle. 
  40. ^ Gray, Emma (May 10, 2013). "Daisy 'Great Gatsby': 9 Opinions About Fitzgerald's Ms. Buchanan". The Huffington Post. 
  41. ^ a b Baker, Katie (May 10, 2013). "The Problem With The Great Gatsby's Daisy Buchanan". The Daily Beast. 
  42. ^ "'The Great Gatsby' Movie Review: Carey Mulligan's Daisy Buchanan No Role Model". mic.com. May 15, 2013. 
  43. ^ Lindower, Carlie (May 15, 2013). "'The Great Gatsby' Movie Review: Carey Mulligan's Daisy Buchanan No Role Model". Mic. 
  44. ^ "Why Daisy Buchanan Sucks And We Should Start Imagining People Complexly". literallydarling.com. October 12, 2013. 
  45. ^ "A Warning To The Girls Who Will Idolize Daisy Buchanan". Thought Catalog. May 8, 2013. 
  46. ^ Wilson, Andriel (February 28, 2016). "10 On Screen Villains that Will Make Your Blood Boil, Part 2". moviepilot.com. 
  47. ^ "Daisy, You're a Drip, Dear: Detestable Literary Characters Who Are Not Technically Villains". thehairpin.com. May 17, 2013. 
  48. ^ McGinn, Dave (June 1, 2015). "Three characters we'd like to see tell their side of the story, like Fifty Shades' Christian Grey". The Globe and Mail. 
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daisy_Buchanan